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Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. It is thus a shape transformation process with material retention.
The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter. This is achieved by redrawing the part through a series of dies.The flange region (sheet metal in the die shoulder area) experiences a radial drawing stress and a tangential compressive stress due to the material retention property.
These compressive stresses (hoop stresses) result in flange wrinkles (wrinkles of the first order). Wrinkles can be prevented by using a blank holder, the function of which is to facilitate controlled material flow into the die radius.
The deep drawing process is a forming process which occurs under a combination of tensile and compressive conditions. A flat sheet metal blank is formed into a hollow body open on one side or a hollow body is formed into a hollow body with a smaller cross-section.
Deep drawing processes are divided into three types:
In the automotive industry, deep drawing is usually carried out using rigid tools.
The rigid tools consist of a punch, die and binder. In deep drawing, the plate holder closes after the metal sheet blank has been inserted.
Next the sheet is clamped between the die and the binder. This process slows down the flow of the sheet while it is being drawn and thereby prevents wrinkles from forming under the binder. The punch stretches the sheet over the die radius and forms it in the die. The amount of punch force necessary for forming is thereby continually increased up to the lower dead center of the punch.
Whereas in pure deep drawing there is no reduction of sheet metal thickness, forming is achieved in stretch forming purely as a result of a decrease in sheet metal thickness. Stretch forming is extensively used for the forming of only slightly curved parts with low depth of draw
When drawing complex Automobile parts in practice, there is usually a combination of stretch and deep drawing involved. It is necessary that the sheet metal is stretched as well as possible without reaching the material’s limits (e.g. splits, wrinkles).